1. Species and the Mating Game.
Before we start on our quest to search for the holy grail of human nature we should decide what we mean by human. Biologically speaking we are a species , a concept invented by the biologists for classifying living things. Originally the definition of a species was “ a group of living things which could mate and procreate “. This is not very practical if you know only that,it would mean you have to try and mate with everything you meet in order to be able to recognize it is in your species . Perhaps some people think like that ,I know dogs do because some tried even with my leg and that is so obviously not in their species. Well by now species of animals are more or less classified ,for plants and more primitive life forms things are not so clear .I have some experience with cacti,not mating of course but in their classification; I followed Backeberg a well-known botanist but he made new species out of plants living on the other side of a mountain just because the flower was more pink than white .Others then reduced it to a location variety and this lead to the publication of many scientific (?)papers and name changes .Of course we think tigers and lions are different species but here do exist ligers ,horses and donkeys are supposedly different but there are mules and asses . With humans one may wonder about their position in the class of apes ,but I guess,in fact I hope there have not been mating experiments like with bonobos or so,of course in vitro I mean.But the problem is solved by genetics now! Is it strange that it is possible to recognize a human individual by its genes? I think it is not possible to recognize one daisy (small d !) from another by its genes ? The genetic structure of course changes in the evolution of the species ,the more complex the genetic structure the more really different individuals are possible ,if the genetic structure is very simple and limited the procreation would be a form of cloning! Perhaps that is a first conclusion,our individualistic properties are the result of the evolution to great complexity of the genetic structure,which also yields our flexibility for adaption to changing environment factors ,hence our survival success. We evolved into a herd “animal” but one with strong individual traits unlike bees or many insects ,the cognitive activity which also evolved to the highest level also expressed this individuality and we developed an abstract universe next to the reality again with individual characteristics leading to communication and the construction of an ordered society of individuals .But now we have to study that evolution a bit closer,knowing the history helps to understand the now!
2. The Evolution Trinity.
In ancient Greece the philosopher Heraclitus already exclaimed “Panta Rhei” ,everything changes (flows). Indeed nothing in the universe is invariant under passing time, so everything is a process that is a series of ingredients linked by some relation ,very often causality or some other logical structure relations or implications .Evolution is a process in time ,but the evolution of a human individual cannot be separated from the evolution of the human species and also not from evolution of Life on earth.So I will look at evolution as the combined processes :individual,species,Life , I call it the evolution trinity. The way we describe the processes does not make the individual process a sub-process of the species process or of the Life process because the individual process is defined on different ingredients and relations,for example some constant pain or malfunction of the testicles may be an important ingredient in the individual evolution but is not an essential ingredient in the evolution of Life.However the three processes are obviously interlinked in many ways. When we think about anything,so also about evolution, we are trained to always look for a reason for any event ,also in science this is how scientists try to deal with problems . So it seems natural to think from the cause-consequence strategy,yet we also introduced the concept pure coincidence referring to the situation where no cause is known and accepting that perhaps there is no cause sometimes.For example mutations in the genetic transfer are often presented as being coincidental but of course there is no proof that here is no cause; In the evolution trinity I do no believe in pure coincidence ,the reason is that the inter-relations between the three processes are very complex and themselves not fully understood,so the causality may depend on some mysterious link between the processes. As always there is the difference for the process in reality and the observed process,moreover the description of the process defines itself a new process because the description changes over time in terms of the latest scientific discoveries in genetics. There is the micro-structure process of the original process which is obtained by a deeper description in terms of aspects of every ingredient in the process ,and a lifted relation between aspects which induces the (causal) relation between ingredients in the original process.Knowledge of the micro-structure process is “understanding” of the original process. For the individual and the species evolution the micro-process is not too difficult to construct but for Life that is a serious unsolved problem ,that is clear if we know we do not understand the evolution of Life too well. The evolution of Life depends heavily on local factors,so the notion of biodiversity depending on local combinations of species evolution plays a role in the process Life . The process of human evolution has become very influential ,so that it is now one of the main factors in the biodiversity in many regions on earth and thus strongly influences the evolution of Life. Hence there are several reasons to start with the evolution of the human species when the aim is to understand the trinity!
We start the story now at the moment we have seen an eukaryotic cell,that is a cell with a nucleus and the possibility of developing into a multi-cellular organism . The human is a multi-cellular organism but one with many guests and tenants !
3.Triple Treble Trinity.
We do not start evolution from one eukaryotic cell but from billions. Also the evolution of Life started before that ,there were cells without nucleus ,perhaps also viruses if you call that living things. It is possible that some virus or pre-virus type of naked DNA came to earth via some meteorites carrying material from distant galaxies but we do not need this assumption ,life on earth started from what was present.The evolution of Life is thus different from the combined evolution of all species,as I pointed out before species is a notion invented by us to describe different life forms at the moment they were already clearly distinguishable .Darwin’s theory dealt with the origin of species ,where different species split off from a tree of life like branches from a tree.However I do not consider the tree as the evolution of Life ,first of all because not all life came in species ,(these were already transferring their DNA information so one could indeed speak of a species),second the interactions between life forms including species and other structures are not encoded in the tree-model.It is plausible that life started from chemical reactions near “black smokers” ,outlets of sub-oceanic volcanoes at the sea bottom,where varying heat and chemical composition were present. We can still see black smokers nowadays but say 3 to 4 billion years ago there were more and bigger volcanic outlets in the forming oceans ,with more vigorous activity and more chemical variety. By the always present energy and warmth pre-cells formed near the smokers but they did not yet have DNA .It is possible that some pre-virus with partial DNA or some RNA -form invaded a pre-cell and created a primitive cell with DNA which in turn could die but leave a virus with DNA .Recent developments in science state that cells existed before virus on earth ,but the situation of a pre-cell and pre-virus is not clear for the moment,my suggestion fits the creation of virus from cells via the creation of cells from pre-cells and some pre-virus .The beginning of DNA transfer by living structures marks the splitting off of species evolution from Life evolution but Life continued to evolve in and outside the species and those processes also interacted. Are there new pre-cells created even today which could lead to new types of cells which will create future species with unpredictable properties? Certainly ,and pollution of the ocean changed the chemical properties .But also millions years of climate changes and production of chemical waste of already developed life acted as a self interaction in the process , so the interaction of the processes of Life,species, and the new evolutions in those processes started at other moments in the history make for a complex entwining of two members of the Trinity. Clearly those two also influence the evolution of individual humans ,not only in their life period but also before birth when all the future material,matter from distant galaxies to cells from ancestors are mixing to make the individual at the right moment.Individual humans also influence the other two evolutions,most people only in negligible ways ,but one throwing atom bombs somewhat more.Conclusion we do have to view the trinity of evolution as an interactive triple ,not separable,because the causality of events in it may depend on the interactions
4. Things Happening Have an Intrinsic Reason.
Recall that everything happening in the universe is only possible over time intervals as a series of pre-objects and pre-interactions in universe states,hence in time zero and hence non-existing but “being”,linked by the transition maps between states from earlier moments to later moments .Things happening do not happen in zero time,they are the emergence of a real history in the universe,non-observable (before the existence is realized) to us.In a state there are thus interactions with such history,so on the way of becoming existing( although it is possible it never reaches that level)but also momentary new interactions not coming from the past ,their “being” may be seen as “non-existing coincidence”. So everything existing or happening is the result of a history in the states of the universe we call the intrinsic reason for the event .So an existing event happening always has an intrinsic reason and may also have at the moment of existing i.e. in the last state of the history,have interactions which are “existence coincidental” (that means in that state not the result of a history or being inside a series of momentary events which did not yet lead to existence in reality.) Thus everything happening has an intrinsic reason but may be pre-interacting with non -existing pre-objects. Now when an organism is evolving each step in that process is really happening but not necessarily observed,so every step has an intrinsic reason once it happened.Also when it exits,suppose we observed it and said to ourselves :”oh yes,it exists” in even the next stage of the universe (I am assuming that there is a unique next in the total ordering,this is not necessarily so but then you just talk about any consecutive state!)the organism changed,it is not the same construction anymore . Yet we would identify it to the earlier “thing”by its history in the evolving even if some “properties” we might have observed in the past have changed drastically and it is really a different structure!Now just before some new thing”happens” to the organism,say a mutation this new thing either has a partial history in a time period smaller than its existence interval or it is momentary in a state . So the existing organism to an observer is defied by its history (and when I say observer this means the observed history which is shifted billions of states compared to the evolving history in existence !) identified (wrongly but acceptable) by the observer as the same organism but the unfinished pre-interactions of ingredients of the organism and the outside environment are non-observed,yet these will become the existing history of the future.I referred to such factors as “ existence coincidence” since the observer can never see a reason for these momentary or sub-existence interval interactions.Yet they are pre-interactions of components of the organism , leading to existence in the future and thus to intrinsic reason in the future,so they belong to the organism.Now you cannot say the organism selected those pre-interactions because that would take time,yet the being of those interactions in time zero is completely determined by the pre- organism in that state. A pre-interaction can mathematically be seen as a set of pairs with the pre-organism as one of the components,what the pre-interactions will actually “do” will only be observable after all the existence intervals of the components of the pairs,the fact that some pre-interactions reach the realization stage (or not) is associated to the organism because all interactions existing will be with the existing organism,the non-existing partial interactions are the future intrinsic reasons for new phenomena. So there is some freedom in the “selection” of partial pre-interactions with the pre-organism which will give future happenings on the organism,I call that the organic selection,o that is not in the usual linguistic understanding (that would take time) but it is in the fact that those pre-interactions continuing to existing ones are the whole time-period depending on the evolution of the organism. Conclusion:mutations have an intrinsic reason and are growing into existence by organic selection as defined,the effect of them is part of the “freedom” given by the future realization of some “selected” pre-interactions. If one is careful in understanding the words intrinsic reason,existence coincidence,organic selection, I think one obtains a very coherent theory of “change” in the universe. To deal with the origin of momentary pre-interactions in states one can only use a belief-argument ,I will not go there now,perhaps in a next text