**Source of the Structure of reality**

Type of interactions, structure from fields.

When we observe existing interactions we only observe the effects of them on reality. We observe molecules leaving the object with smell and taste, we observe waves created by some movement in or by the object with hearing, we observe reflected light with seeing, and we experience collisions between molecules with feeling. Observations by using specific instrument translate a direct action on the object — for example bombarding it with photons — into an observation with the senses mentioned above. The effects are existing but is the interaction itself an existing thing, meaning in space and time with the usual definition? To answer this let us descend into the tiniest level of things and look at modern quantum theory where it is claimed that everything in the universe comes from quantum fields, which are mathematical concepts inspired by force fields (and explaining these). Those quantum fields interact and that is observed by the change in their quantized energy levels by excitations. For quantum fermionic fields this can lead to the formation of baryons those can lead to quarks which can stick together to form atoms which may form molecules. The forces at the atomic and subatomic level are at another level, much stronger than the ones on the chemical level of molecules with comparatively weak forces. The quarks interact too and that yields a binding of them into the kernel of the atom, the interaction is supposed to happen through the exchange of “gluons” — for the glue sticking the quarks together — being predicted exchange particles not yet discovered. In Physics the current assumption is that interactions are determined by some exchange particles — for example gravity would be determined by the exchange of “gravitons” but these have not yet been discovered — but why interactions should be effects of exchanging some existing objects is a serious problem. It is more plausible for me that interactions between (quantum-) fields have another nature which is not necessarily resulting in an exchange of some other existing material and also not caused by that. I will view interactions between fields as processes in reality, in fact as a string of momentary pre-interactions between the processes of pre-interactions in the fields.

In my Dynamic Interval-Moment (DIM) model of reality there are sets of momentary pre-things S(t) over each state of the universe U(t) at moment t, where I assume at least some non-commutative topology on the U(t). Time is there just a totally ordered set of elements which are called moments and states U(t) and U(t’) for t< t’ are connected by “geometric” maps f(t,t’): U(t)àU(t’) with some weak properties (cf.[1]). Similarly the S(t)) is linked to the S(t’) for every t< t’ by correspondences (not maps!) s(t,t’):S(t)à S(t’) , satisfying similar weak conditions. Here a correspondence is just a map on the level of the PS(t) which is the set of subsets of S(t) (often called the power set).The basic ingredients of reality are the strings of s(t,t’)A(t) for t<t’, where A(t) is a subset of S(t). The relation between S(t) and U(t) is give by the “place map” §: PS(t)à U(t) associating to A(t) its place in U(t), and the place of A(t) is the join of all places of the a(t) in A(t); hence the place map respects the inclusion in PS(t).

Now I have a definition of “existing” which is that some A(t) realizes to some existing thing via the string of s(t,t’)A(t) over some specific closed interval [t,t(1)] in time T, which is essentially the totally ordered set of states of the universe. The existing object is said to have a manifestation A(I) over the existence interval I=[t,t(1)], hence it does not exist in any moment in I and also not at the endpoint t(1). In my book I also give a definition of a field as a process in pre-interactions and also a definition of self-organization, the interested reader can look this up in [1]. An existing object does not have a place in some U(t) but it has a series of places in the U(t) for t varying over an existence interval, this leads to the definition of the dynamic place of an existing object and a dynamic “geometry” of the existing reality.

This raises another question: is there some structure in the non-existing part of reality, that is the short strings of pre-things — shorter than existence intervals — only depending on the pre-things at moments and the topology on the state at the moment. The non-commutative topology allows to define “proximity” of two pre-things as the set of opens containing the place of both pre-things, the larger this set the “closer together” are the pre-things. Then I defined the cohesion field which derives from the simple fact that an A(t) has an inside and an outside of pre-things in it or not in it; then cohesion can be related to the number of pre-interactions inner in A(t) and exterior to it, the process in time for the string starting at A(t) may be cohesion increasing and then at some threshold for that, existence may happen as a result of “sufficient cohesion”. I conjectured that all fundamental forces in Physics are resulting from the cohesion field acting on different objects with different proximities. The interaction between fields defined as processes of non-existing ingredients does not relate at all to the existing of exchange particles since it is already active in the non-existing reality. However such cohesive pre-force may draw some material things from the interacting objects or it may not, depending on some intensity of the interaction, so gravity (weak)may not have gravitons but the quarks can interact (strong) with as an effect( and that is what we observe :the effect of the interaction not the interaction) the exchange of gluons.

In the foregoing it is clear that the pre-things are not all the “same thing” they have some type, that is obvious because some A(t° at moment t develops into something existing which is probably very different from the realisation of some B(t). I already used this idea in giving names like pre-interaction, pre-object, pre-event, pre-energy but when looking at the (quantum) fields used in physics there are pairs of fields — like the electromagnetic field and its quanta being the charge density — which are interacting, when the charge density is non-zero the EM-field is changed locally and excitations result. There are fields associated with every fundamental particle in Physics, for example, for the leptons, neutrinos, quarks,…, but there is also the gravitational field which one tries to pair to the graviton field but as yet it remains undiscovered, so the gravity field is separated from the existing theory of fundamental particles and some people hope to get everything nicely fitting some Grand Unified Theory.

Now when I give names to the processes of pre-things which stem from the existing things those processes realise to that defined the Type of the subsets of the sets S(t) where both pre-objects and pre-interactions of a certain Type then yield a disjoint covering by Type-classes of the S(t) at all moments t if one class is added, namely the class of non-realising subsets of the S(t), those then define non-realising processes as strings in time just like those which do realise to certain manifestations. As I pointed out in the DIM model those never exiting processes do have pre-interactions with realising processes and so influence these even if they themselves do not realize. If we include pre-interactions from no-realising processes in some string of pre-things that may lead to another existing manifestation different from what a process without the pre-interactions from the unrealised world would realise to. Theoretically we can look at both realisations but in reality the subsets A(t) of S(t) which will realise after a suitable time interval are fixed at the moment t and so it does or does not contain pre-interactions with non-realising processes, we cannot choose that at our discretion! So the presence of the dark influence (dealt with in the DIM model, see [1]) is there or is not and we cannot change that or “observe” the difference made by the presence of the dark influence.

We cannot describe what did not happen!

Anyway in my model of field processes there was a class of “actors” and one of “acted upon” and some interaction between those processes defined the field (which is different from that interaction but described by it). Theoretically one can thus define DIM-fields for any Type one defines on the system of the S(t) over the states U(t), many more than what is — so far — done in particle physics. We can thus define a DIM-field “Life” and also by selecting specific DNA construction processes a field “Lion” thus selecting species-fields. Moreover one may define organic fields where the processes are given by pre-sets which are (pre-interaction) complete in the sense that all pre-things pre-interacting with something in the subset are already in the subset. It is even possible to allow a more general notion of string — where s(t,t’)(A(t)) is not equal to A(t’) but only contained in it — and define process fields with that to obtain more chaotic organic fields (for the moment let us not go there).

Note that our Type is in fact given by the whole process , that is over all time for the universe, so when I name a Type Lion that is choosing the appearance of a lion as I know it now but actually it should be its whole evolution process from eukaryotic cell to the lion now and also its complete future evolution. Since something which realises as an existing thing is only realising to exactly that thing the classes given by the Type are a covering of all realising processes and if the NR (never realising)-class is added it is a cover for all processes from the PS(t), t in T. Now if gravitons do not exist the gravity field can be an “effect” of a non-existing field, a subfield of the NR-field, and it is then invariantly active over all time (which seems to be the case). The DIM-field Coh I introduced, yielding the coherence seeking “force” can be the non-existing field having gravity for its effect on existing things, then gravity may well be the existing effect of a process of dark pre-interaction.

Now for structure in the S(t) system, we have the covering given by the Types, the proximity in term of places of the pre-existing sets A(t) and of the dynamic places (of the manifestations and mutations) for the existing object it realises to, and the cohesion-type being the relation between the number of pre-interactions interior in A(t) and the exterior ones. Note that there is almost no geometry in the structure — apart from something about dynamic places — because the reality structure is obviously one of the processes in it which are rather independent of the geometries we invent on it.

Obviously this means that the structure is only transparent if one “looks” at the finished universe outside of time, that is the totally ordered book of pages being the states of the universe at moments glued by the transition maps and correspondences for the structure. The Type is then just the evolution process of some existing “thing” over the whole time written in the book, so the Type “is… what it is”

Reference.

[1] F. Van Oystaeyen, Time Hybrids, Nova Science publishers, 2021.